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Microcrystalline cellulose is a white, non-soluble, neutral, non-reactive, loose, commonly used excipient. Its physical and chemical properties decide on its efficiency used widely in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and other industries.
In order to apply cellulose in various industry branches, that polymer is available in different grades, varying in particle size (15 μm – 250 μm) and bulk density.
Microcrystalline cellulose is widely used as binder, filler and disintegrant in the technology of solid, oral form of pharmaceutical product.
Cellulose is general-purpose raw material, its advantage over any other excipients (e.g. starch, lactosis) results from biological purity and chemical inactivity. Moreover, thanks to its high water sorption it can be mixed with other hygroscopic substances and it accelerates their decomposition, while high necking ability allows its application in direct pelletizing process.
Sodium croscarmellose is internally cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) contributing to disintegration and dissolving drugs and dietary supplements in a form of pills, capsules and granulates. Cross-linking makes the sodium croscarmellose non-soluble, hydrophilic and strongly absorbing substance, providing therefore excellent expanding properties and its unique fibrous structure promotes extraordinary water absorption. Sodium croscarmellose has a form of white, loose powder of fibrous structure. It is commonly used and approved by the Food and Drug Agency as disintegration substance in pharmaceutical industry.
In preparations in a form of pills, sodium croscarmellose may be used in both processes: direct pelletizing and wet granulation. In the latter case, croscarmellose is recommended to be used in two phases of the process: wet and dry (internal and external granulation) to optimally use absorption and expanding properties of that dissintegrating substance. Sodium croscarmellose may be used as dissintegrating substance in the amount of up to 5% of pill’s mass; however, most often used concentration is 2% in direct pelletizing and 3% in pills produced through wet granulation.
Carboxymethyl cellulose is synthesized by the alkali-catalyzed reaction of cellulose with sodium salt of chloroacetic acid (Sodium chloroacetate). Carboxymethyl cellulose is a gummy substance commonly called cellulose gum, widely applied in food industry as thickener, stabilizer and emulsifier. It is commonly used in production of medical ointments, laxatives and neutralising agent in medicine. Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose belongs to the group of cellulose ethers and its sodium salts are widely used in many industry sectors.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is white or nearly white tasteless and odourless granulated powder. When dried it is strongly hygroscopic.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose easily picks up moisture from air, it is easily soluble in cold and warm water creating colloidal suspension. It is, however, not soluble in organic solvents like methanol, ethanol, chloroform, benzene and similar.
It is applied as thickener, binder, stabiliser, protective colloid, suspending agent, flow control agent. It solves very quickly in cold and warm water. The above mentioned properties and functions promote wide application of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, paper and other industries.
PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) is a loose powder polymer, white or brown yellow, depending on pulverisation degree. Chemically synthesised through free radical polymerization in water /isopropanol solution. Types of povidones offered are varying in the value of K parameter, defining particle size, thus, products viscosity. Offered types: K-25, K-30, K-90.
All 3 above types of povidones are commonly applied in various types of direct pelletizing processes:
– when active pharmaceutical ingredient is pelletized together with excipients,
– when ingredient supporting direct pelletizing is used,
– when direct pelletizing is carried out through granulation phase.
PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) finds its application:
– as filler or binder (it is polar substance which binds well with other polar compounds),
– in cosmetics and personal care products: added to shampoos, hair foams and conditioners, toothpastes,
– also in genetic engineering as cell membrane blocker in hybridisation process.
PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) creates copolymers and coordination complexes, like:
– Crospovidone XL-10.
– Crospovidone XL-10.
Dibasic calcium phosphate anhydrous – granulated
The granules have a porous structure of large specific surface area. The result is that the product has unique properties Adsorption against both water and lipids. With these features, Dibasic is ideal for difficult products, for example hygroscopic extracts with a high content of lipids, phospholipids and others.
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